Before You Begin

Welcome to CS 61BL! We have a wonderful summer planned for y’all, and we’re so excited that you’ll be joining us!

First thing’s first: setup! In this class, you’ll be using real-world tools, and that means that you’ll likely run into real-world problems with configuration and setup these first few days. Don’t be discouraged, and make sure to ask for help if you’re stuck! The best place to ask for help is through Zoom during your actual lab time. If you attempt to do this outside of that time and run into any problems, please come ask then.

If ever something isn’t working, or a screen that should show up isn’t showing up, make sure you ask for help – do not keep going because this might make it more difficult for us to identify the problem later on if you do hit a dead-end.

Partner up!

Your lab TA will assign you a partner to work with today – but don’t worry, you’ll only have to work with them today. In fact, everyday this week, we’ll assign you a new partner to work with so that you have a chance to meet different people in your lab section! For more information, take a look at our Collaboration Guide.

Terminal Basics

Text Editor

If you already have a text editor you like from a previous class, feel free to skip this step. Word processors like Microsoft Word do not count.

Throughout the summer you will find it helpful to have a text editor and one will be required to complete this lab. In a following lab we will be switching to using IntelliJ, a powerful IDE (Integrated Development Environment), to develop all of your Java code. Some popular options are Atom and Sublime Text. You should be able to use the default installation recommendations, but if you run into problems do not hesitate to ask for help!

Terminal Installation (Windows)

If you either do not have a Windows computer or do have a Windows computer but installed Git Bash in a previous class feel free to skip this step.

In this class we will be using the terminal to run programs, submit assignments, etc. All commands we will be supplying will be for a bash shell. Unfortunately the default Windows command prompt is not a bash shell, so we will need to install one. Please install the Git Bash terminal by clicking the “Download 2.27.0 for Windows” button. You should be able to select the default configurations with the exception of the following option.

You can choose the default editor used by git to be any of the options in the list if you have Atom, Sublime Text or another editor installed. Students often find these easier to use than Nano or Vim (which can be a bit tricky to figure out if you have never used them).

Note that some of the versions will be ever so slightly different than the versions in the screenshots. This should not make any difference, don’t worry if the photos do not match exactly.

After installing you should now have a Bash terminal on your computer. Whenever we refer to a terminal throughout the class you should use Git Bash instead of any other terminal on your Windows computer (e.g. do not use CMD or Powershell).

Essential Terminal Commands

In CS 61BL we will be using the terminal extensively, even more than you likely did in previous classes. Bash commands can be pretty powerful and will allow you to create folders or files, navigate through your file system, etc. To jump start your knowledge we have included a short guide of the most essential commands that you will be using in this class. Please carefully read this and try to familiarize yourself with the commands. We will help you as you get started, but by the end of the class we hope that you will have become a proficient user of the bash terminal!

cd
  cd hw


This command will change your directory to hw.

pwd
Present working directory
  pwd


This command will tell you the full absolute path for the current directory you are in if you are not sure where you are.

.
  cd .


This command will change your directory to the current directory (aka do nothing).

..
Means one parent directory above your current directory
  cd ..


This command will change your directory to its parent. If you are in /workspace/day1/, the command will place you in /workspace/.

ls
List files/folders in directory
  ls


This command will list all the files and folders in your current directory.

  ls -a


This command will list all the files and folders in your current directory, including hidden files.

  ls -l


This command will list all the files and folders in your current directory with timestamps and file permissions. This can help you double-check if your file updated correctly or change the read-write-execute permissions for your files.

mkdir
Make a directory
  mkdir dirname


This command will make a directory within the current directory called dirname.

rm
Remove a file
  rm file


This command will remove file from the current directory. It will not work if file does not exist.

  rm -r dir


This command will remove the dir directory recursively. In other words, it will delete all the files and directories in dir in addition to dir itself. Be careful with this command!

cp
Copy a file
  cp lab01/original lab02/duplicate


This command will copy the original file in the lab01 directory and and create a duplicate copy in the lab02 directory.

mv
Move or rename a file
  mv lab01/original lab02/original


This command moves original from lab01 to lab02. Unlike cp, mv does not leave original in the lab01 directory.

  mv lab01/original lab01/newname


This command does not move the file but rather renames it from original to newname.

There are some other useful tricks when navigating on command line:

• Most terminals can autocomplete file and directory names for you with tab completion. When you have an incomplete name (for something that already exists), try pressing the Tab key for autocomplete or a list of possible names.

• If you want to retype the same instruction used recently, press the Up key on your keyboard until you see the correct instruction. This saves typing time if you are doing repetitive instructions (like running Java programs on command line while testing).

Personal Computer Setup

Since all students will be working remotely, you will need to install Java and Git on your personal computer. Please follow the setup procedures below to install Java, Git, and any other operating system-specific requirements.

If you are wondering why we are telling you to install Java 11, instead of the current / most recent version, Java 14, here is why. Java 11 is a LTS or Long Term Support release. This means that Java 11 will be officially supported through 2024, while Java 14 will only be supported until September 2020. The difference between the versions will be negligible for you in this class, so we opted for you to install the version that should last longer.

Windows Setup

You should only complete this section if you have a Windows computer, otherwise skip it.

Install Java

You will need to install the Java 11 JDK to compile and run code for this class. First head to the AdoptOpenJDK Website. You should select “OpenJDK 11 (LTS)” as the version and “HotSpot” as the JVM like below.

Once downloaded, run the installation file and follow the prompts to install Java onto your computer. It is critically important to select the “Set JAVA_HOME variable” option in the custom setup screen (this sets environment variables correctly so that you can run Java commands from Git Bash). Once selected it should look like the following image.

After you make sure this has been selected go ahead and continue with the installation.

Install Python 3

Note: If you used python 3 for a previous class and were able to call python commands from Git Bash you can skip this step.

We will use python for some of the later more complicated projects later on. Install python3 at the following link. In the “Advanced Options” section make sure that you select the “Add Python to environment variables” option. Once selected the Window should look like this.

For all other options, it is fine to go with the defaults and finish the installation. Once you have completed this jump down to the test run section.

macOS Setup

You should only complete this section if you have a Mac computer, otherwise skip it.

We will be using terminal to install the necessary software for this class using a package manager called Homebrew. First you need to run the following command to install Homebrew if you have do not already have it installed.

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"  During the process, you may be prompted to enter a password. When you enter your password, nothing will display on the terminal, but the computer is actually recording your password. This is a security measure. Just type your password and hit enter. Once installed run the following three commands to update packages, install cask, and allow cask to look up versions brew update brew tap homebrew/cask brew tap homebrew/cask-versions  Next by running the following three commands you should be able to install Java, Git, and Python 3. brew cask install java11 brew install git brew install python  Once you have completed this jump down to the test run section. Linux Setup You should only complete this section if you have a Linux computer, otherwise skip it. There are many different distributions of Unix / Linux with different package manages (apt-get, yum, etc.), so these instructions might differ slightly than what you must run. These instructions should match exactly to what you would need to run on Ubuntu. You should be able to install Java, Python 3, and Git. By running the following commands (all of these should be available from the default repositories). sudo apt-get install openjdk-11-jdk python3 git  Once you have completed this jump down to the test run section. Test Run Let’s try running a Java program to try out your new setup. Again don’t worry too much about what we are doing here, all of this will be explained in more detail later on. This is just meant as a sanity check before continuing. First we will make a temporary directory and navigate to it with the following command. mkdir -p ~/temp-cs61bl && cd ~/temp-cs61bl  Next running the following command will create a file HelloWorld.java on your computer which will print out the string “Hello World!”. echo 'public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello world!"); } }' > HelloWorld.java  Now the real test can be completed as follows. 1. In your terminal enter ls (list files / folders in this directory). You should see HelloWorld.java listed. 2. Run the command javac HelloWorld.java. This should not generate any output, but when you run the command ls again you should now see both HelloWorld.java and HelloWorld.class. If this produced any output, there is likely something wrong with your setup and the rest of the test probably will not work. 3. Run the command java HelloWorld. This should print out “Hello world!” for you. If it did not, again there is likely something incorrect about your setup. 4. You can now delete the temp-cs61bl folder and its contents by running the following command. Be careful with this as the files will be permanently deleted (should not be a problem since this is a temporary directory we just made)  cd .. && rm -rf ~/temp-cs61bl  If at any point during the test run you ran into problems you should revisit the corresponding instructions to make sure you followed them correctly. If you cannot resolve your problem try asking other students or your TA! GitHub and BeaconTM We have a wonderful in-house system for centralizing your grades and student information called BeaconTM (copyright 2019, all rights reserved and patent pending). We will also setup here our CS 61BL GitHub repository (“repo”), which you will need to submit all coding assignments. 1. Create an account at GitHub.com. If you already have an account, you do not need to create a new one. 2. Go to the Beacon website and you’ll be guided through a few steps to complete your GitHub repository registration. Please follow them carefully! You’ll need to be logged in to your Berkeley account to complete the Google Form quiz. If any errors occur while you’re working through the steps, please let your TA know immediately. 3. After completing all of the steps, you should have received an email inviting you to collaborate on your course GitHub repository, accept the email invitation and you should be good to go. Hooray! Don’t follow the instructions that GitHub says you might want to do – instead, follow the instructions given later in this lab. More details about your repository Your repository will have a name containing a number that is unique to you! For instance, if your repo is called “su20-s42”, you’ll be able to visit your private repository at https://github.com/Berkeley-CS61B-Student/su20-s42 (when logged into GitHub). Additionally, the instructors, TAs, and tutors will be able to view your repository. This means you can (and should!) link to your code when asking private debugging questions on Ed. No other students will be able to view your repository. As a reminder, you may not post code from this course publicly, even after completing the course. Doing so is a violation of our course policies and you might be subject to disciplinary action. Git In this course, you’ll be required to use the git version control system, which is wildly popular out in the real world. Unfortunately, the abstractions behind it are fairly tricky to understand, so don’t be frazzled when you encounter significant frustration as you learn to use git. Towards the middle of the semester, we’ll be learning the inner workings of Git in much greater detail but, for now, let’s just get a working knowledge of how to use git. Before you proceed, read sections up to the Remote Repositories section of the Using Git Guide. Do not proceed until you have read sections up to the Remote Repositories section of the Using Git Guide. You do not need to read past that. Git Exercise Now that you’ve read the first 3 sections of the Using Git Guide, you’re ready to start using git! As part of your lab checkoff, you will be working through a small git workflow by setting up a git repository and making a couple commits to the repository. An academic intern or staff member will look at your git repository during checkoff to ensure that it is in a good state. If you need help with creating directories, creating files, changing directories, etc., refer back to Learn to Use the Terminal. If at some point during this exercise Git prompts you to update your username and email, now is a good time to change your git name and email. 1. Create a directory called lab01-checkoff. You can put this directory anywhere on your computer (unless you have already cloned your su20-*** repository, in which case, you should not put this directory inside of your su20-*** repo). 2. Move into the lab01-checkoff directory, and initialize a git repository in this directory. 3. Create a file called 61b.txt in any way you’d like. In this text file, add the text “61b version 1” into it. 4. Create another file called 61bl.txt in any way you’d like. In this text file, add the text “61bl version 1” into it. 5. Begin tracking only 61b.txt, and create a new commit containing just this file, with the following commit message: “Add 61b.txt”. 6. Make a modification in 61b.txt by changing the text in the file to: “61b changed to version 2”. 7. Make another commit, this time containing both 61b.txt and 61bl.txt. The commit message should be: “Update 61b.txt and add 61bl.txt”. 8. Finally, make one more modification to 61b.txt by changing the text in the file to: “61b changed to version 3”. Don’t commit this version. At this point, if you were to type in git status, something like this should show: Also, if you were to run git log, something like this should show: Be sure to save this repository and directory until you get checked-off by a lab assistant. Along with other short conceptual questions involving git, you will be asked to revert 61b.txt back to the version in the most recent commit, as well as back to the earliest version of the file, so make sure you know how to do this! Hint: Look into the checkout command. But be careful when using the checkout command, as your repo might end up in an unexpected state. For this exercise make sure to always specify a file (or directory) when you use checkout. Specifically, if you see something about your repository being in a detached HEAD state as a result of a checkout command, that is something we don’t want. Read the git-WTFS guide for more on what it is and how to fix it. Git & Remote Repos First, read the Remote Repositories section of the Using Git Guide. In this course, you’ll be required to submit your code using Git to your course GitHub repository that you should have created above. This is for several reasons: • To spare you the incredible agony of losing your files. • To submit your work for grading and to get results back from the autograder. • To save you from the tremendous anguish of making unknown changes to your files that break everything. • To ensure that we have easy access to your code so that we can help if you’re stuck. • To dissuade you from posting your solutions on the web in a public GitHub repository. This is a major violation of course policy! • To expose you to a realistic workflow that is common on every major project you’ll ever work on in the future. • To enable safer, more equitable partner collaborations. Setting up your Git Repository Clone your su20-*** git repository. Navigate to the spot in your folders on your computer that you’d like to start your repository. In the example below, we’re assuming you want all your stuff in a folder named cs61bl, but you can pick a different name if you’d like. Your terminal might use a different prompt than $. Type out or paste only the part after the prompt.

$cd cs61bl  Enter the following command to clone your GitHub repo. Make sure to replace the *** with your class repository number (this should be the repo number you were assigned through Beacon not you lab section number). $ git clone https://github.com/Berkeley-CS61B-Student/su20-s***.git


After cloning your terminal will report “warning: You appear to have cloned an empty repository.” This is not an issue, it is just Git letting you know that there are no files there which in our case is what we should expect.

If you’d like to setup SSH access so you don’t need to type in your GitHub password every time you use your repository, feel free to follow the relevant instructions on GitHub instead. If you don’t know what that means, just use the command above.

If you use macOS and you’ve previously logged into GitHub, your computer may have remembered your username and password from before. If it’s not the same login information as you’re using now, you may need to update keychain credentials.

Move into your newly created repo!

$cd su20-***  Now we will add the skeleton remote repository. You will pull from this remote repository to get starter code for assignments. (Make sure that you are within the newly created repository folder when the continue with these commands.) Enter the following command to add the skeleton remote. $ git remote add skeleton https://github.com/cs61bl/skeleton-su20.git


Listing the remotes should now show both the origin and skeleton remotes.

$git config --global user.email "<your email>"  Change your Git text editor We’ll also change the text editor associated with Git. Sometimes, Git needs your help when inputting things like commit messages, so it will open a text editor for you. We recommend using Atom or Sublime Text, though you’re welcome to use your preferred text editor. Follow the instructions here and make sure that you follow the correct instructions for your operating system. Working on the Skeleton You must now pull from the skeleton remote in order to get the starter code for this lab. You will also do this when new projects and assignments are released (or if there is ever an update to an assignment). To do this, use the spookiest command in the whole git toolbox. $ git pull skeleton master


What this does is fetch all remote files from the repo named skeleton (which is located at https://github.com/cs61bl/skeleton-su20.git) and copy them into your current folder.

If you get an error similar to fatal: refusing to merge unrelated histories, you can fix this by, for this time only, running:

$git pull --rebase --allow-unrelated-histories skeleton master  If you list the files in your current directory, you’ll see that there is now one folder: lab01. Look in the lab01 folder and you’ll see files called LeapYear.java and magic_word.txt that you’ll work with in later parts of this lab. Now we will show you what submitting files will be like using Git! Open the file magic_word.txt in whatever your favorite text editor is (both you and your partner should do this). Discuss with your partner what your favorite flavor of ice cream is, then edit your magic_word.txt file to contain your partner’s favorite flavor (this is not the magic word you need to get credit). Now stage and commit magic_word.txt. $ git add lab01/magic_word.txt
$git commit -m "My partner's favorite ice cream!"  Finally push these changes to the master branch on the origin remote repo. $ git push origin master


You can verify that this was successful by checking your repository online on Github’s website.

Checkoff: Git Exercise

You will need to get your git exercise checked off by a staff member or academic intern. We will be using our online office hours queue for this, and the online queue will also be what will be used in all labs going forward to get help from staff members. To add yourself to the queue navigate to (oh.datastructur.es)[https://oh.datastructur.es]. The instructions should be given there, but if you are unsure how to do this feel free to ask in your lab’s zoom call.

A staff member or academic intern, upon completion of the lab checkoff, will tell you what to put into the magic_word.txt file in order to pass the autograder. If there’s a wait, feel free to move on until your name is called.

Java

Java is sometimes called a “compiled language” while Python is called an “interpreted language”. Neither of these terms, however, make any sense yet. What is true is that in most Java implementations, programs are compiled (translated into a form that is more easily executed by computers) in a separate, user-visible step from being executed, while most Python implementations give users the impression that the actual programs that they write are executed directly. These are not properties of the languages, however; Java can be interpreted and Python can be compiled. But as often happens, even in CS, people get sloppy in their terminology and fail to distinguish between programming languages and their implementations.

The Java implementations we use compile Java source code (what is written by the programmer, typically in *.java files) into Java class files containing virtual byte code, which may then be executed by a separate program. (Often, this separate program, called java, does a mix of interpreting the class file and compiling it into machine code and then having the bare hardware execute it.)

Let’s see an example. Here is the “Hello World” program again in Java. Don’t worry about understanding it for now - we’ll deconstruct it later in this lab.

public class HelloWorld {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Hello world!");
}
}


Here is what the corresponding compiled Java code (called bytecode) looks like. The Java virtual machine can interpret this to run the program.

Why Compilation?

At this point, you may be wondering why Java is (usually) compiled. Compilers are quite helpful for several reasons:

1. They can check for errors prior to runtime (program execution). The Java compiler will catch and report errors like:

• type errors, which can be produced by giving functions the wrong objects as parameters (like a String instead of a int)
• syntax errors, which can be caused by forgetting syntactical elements like parentheses or braces

Catching these and many other types of errors prior to runtime helps to prevent many of the possible bugs caused by programmer error, making Java programs more stable before they are run.

2. Compilers can help speed up programs. Programs run by interpreters can be slow because interpreters must parse text that is understandable to humans and translate it into an executable form. Furthermore, for various engineering reasons, this executable form is generally not actual machine code (directly executable by the hardware), but some other intermediate form that another program (the interpreter) then executes. A compiler does this translation work once and saves the instructions to a file variously called a binary, object file, or (in the case of Java) a class file. As such, Java programs do not have to translate the code at runtime, decreasing the overall runtime of the code.

There are many other reasons some languages have compilers, some of which you will learn by taking CS 61C. But for now, you will just need to know how to compile and run your Java program.

Compiling Java Programs

There are many different Java compilers, but we’ll be using javac for command line in this class. javac is included in the Java Development Kit (JDK) and should be accessible to you now if you setup your computer correctly.

Let’s pretend you have a Java file called BaconEggs.java. To compile BaconEggs.java, you would type the following command into your terminal:

$javac BaconEggs.java  Every time you make changes to your Java source code, you will need to save and recompile it in order for the changes to have effect at runtime (think about why that is so). Running Java Programs Compiling your program using the command above should generate .class files. For example, let’s pretend that you’ve compiled BaconEggs.java. This would generate a new file called BaconEggs.class. If you were to open this .class file in a text editor, you’d see something like the bytecode in the image earlier in this lab. Instead, you’ll typically use the Java bytecode interpreter to run the class file. We could invoke the Java bytecode interpreter on our new class file by typing the following command in a terminal: $ java BaconEggs


This would begin execution of the program, but you do not type BaconEggs.class. If you ever try to run a java <class name> command without a <class name>.class file it will cause an error message like this:

Error: Could not find or load main class


Writing Java Programs

Java Is Object-Oriented

Java is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language. What this means is that you’ll organize your programs around the types of data that it manipulates. Each of these data types describes a class of objects and how these objects will interact with each other. Those of you who took 61A may recognize that term as having been applied to Python, but Java takes OOP a step further. In Java, all functions (or methods, as the OOP inventors renamed them in order to make-believe they were inventing an entirely new concept) and all variables reside in some class definition.

Format of a Java Program

Every Java source file contains a class, interface, or “enum” (a special kind of class). For now, let’s just discuss class definitions. A class definition provides the name of the class and serves as a template for objects. In addition, a class definition contains variables and methods that define the behavior of that class.

Here is a deconstruction of the aforementioned “Hello World” program:

A Java program consists of a collection of one of more of these Java files. At least one of the classes in a complete Java program must contain a method called main having the header shown in the HelloWorld code above. This main method is where execution of your program begins.

This is why running the HelloWorld program prints out Hello world!. The main method in the HelloWorld class is being run when you type java HelloWorld into the terminal.

Exercise: Leap Year

In the lab01 folder, you should see a file called LeapYear.java. This program is supposed to test whether or not a given year is a leap year. The user will give a year as a command line parameter (examples given below), and then print out whether or not that year is a leap year, e.g.

$java LeapYear 2000 2000 is a leap year.$ java LeapYear 1999
1999 is not a leap year.
$java LeapYear 2004 2004 is a leap year.$ java LeapYear 2100
2100 is not a leap year.


A leap year is either:

• divisible by 400 or
• divisible by 4 and not by 100.

For example, 2000 and 2004 are leap years. 1900, 2003, and 2100 are not leap years.

To implement this you will have to implement the isLeapYear function in the file LeapYear.java. You can open your code in a text editor of your choice. You should be replacing the // TODO with your solution. Some additional guidelines for style and tips for Java can be found below.

Style

In this course, we’ll work hard to try to keep our code readable. Some of the most important features of good coding style are:

Consistent style
Spacing, variable naming, brace style, etc.
Size
Lines that are not too wide, source files that are not too long.
Descriptive naming
As applied to variables, functions, classes. We prefer meaningful names like year or getUserName instead of x or f.
Avoidance of repetitive code
Strive to never have two significant blocks of code that are nearly identical except for a few changes. We’ll teach you a number of large-scale design and small-scale style techniques for working around these situations.
Line comments in Java use the // delimiter. Block (or multi-line comments)comments use /* and */. Make sure to update the Javadoc comment (“Update this comment…”) and provide a short description of the method’s behavior.

In addition, if you used any external resources, please cite it in the Javadoc comment using the @source tag like in the example above. It’s not necessary to cite anything from the course staff, but you should cite any other resources like StackOverflow by pasting in a link.

We have a more formal style guide available for you to read at your own leisure, but the golden rule is this: Write your code so that it is easy for a stranger to understand.

Java Tips

• The && operator computes the boolean and of two expressions, while || computes boolean or.
• The % operator implements remainder. Thus, the value of year % 4 will be 0, 1, 2, or 3.
• The != operator compares two values for inequality. The code fragment if (year % 4 != 0) reads as “if the remainder when dividing year by 4 is not equal to 0.”
• When one of the arguments of the + operator is a String, the arguments are concatenated as Strings. For example, 2 + "horse" + "battery" would return "2horsebattery". This is different from Python which doesn’t perform this automatic conversion.

General Git Workflow: Saving Your Work

As you are making changes to your code, it is good practice to save your work often. We have briefly discussed the commands, but now we will explain how they should be used in practice. In the case that you ever want to go back to another version of your code, it is better to have more options to roll back to. The next set of instructions will talk you through Git’s version of saving work through snapshots of your file system called commits.

1. After you have made some changes to the code within our local repository, Git will take notice of these changes. To get a report of the current state of your local repository use the command git status. Run this and try to interpret the results. Do they make sense to you or do they match your intuition? It is helpful to run this before running other git commands so you know what the state of things are.

2. If we want to save work that we have completed on a file, we must first stage the file and then we can commit it. Staging a file is achieved with the command git add; this does not save the file but it marks it to be saved the next time you commit. The two below commands show what saving work looks like in a git repository. For git add depending on what directory you are in, the path to the file you are adding might differ (hint: use git status if it’s not clear). Additionally the -m "Completed Year.java" part of the commit command specifies a message to be attached to this snapshot. It is useful to have descriptive messages in case you ever do need to revert to a previous version.

 $git add lab01/LeapYear.java$ git commit -m "lab01: Completed LeapYear.java"

3. Once again, we want to push these changes to the Github repository so that your changes can be seen by us and graded. Your changes will also be available to pull if you had your repo initialized in other places or other computers.

 \$ git push origin master


Get into the habit of saving your files and doing the git commit step often (i.e. every 15 minutes). It can save your skin when you mess things up, since it allows you to back out of changes and to see what you have changed recently.

Basically, right when you sit down to work in your repository, first git pull to make sure you are starting with the most recent code. While you are working, frequently commit. When you are finished, git push so all your changes are uploaded and ready for you to pull again next time.

Discussion: Compilation Errors

Throughout this lab, you may have run into some errors like the one below after running javac LeapYear.java.

LeapYear.java:3: error: incompatible types: int cannot be converted to boolean
if (year) {

1 error


This is a compilation error because the compiler, javac, is able to identify (‘catch’) the problem before we even run the code with java!

Discuss these questions with your partner:

• What kinds of bugs is the compiler able to catch? What do you suspect is going on behind the scenes?
• What kinds of bugs is it unable to catch?
• And how is this similar or different to other languages you may have used before, like Python, Scheme, MATLAB, etc?

Submission

The last step is to submit your work with Gradescope. Gradescope is the site that you’ll use to submit lab and project assignments.

We added everyone’s CalCentral email to Gradescope on the first day of labs. Make sure to login using the email address listed on CalCentral.

Full instructions on how to submit can be found in the Git Submissions and Extension Requests guide. If you have any questions regarding this process please ask your TA and they will be more than happy to help you out!

Please report any issues you may have to Ed. Entire error messages and/or screenshots are welcome.

Today and even when partnerships are locked down, everybody must submit to Gradescope to receive credit (both you and your partner). In the case of a partnership, you may have the same code and you can even submit from the same repository, but you both are responsible for making your own submission before the deadline.

As above, we strongly encourage you to make frequent commits! Lack of proper version control will not be considered an excuse for lost work, particularly after the first week.

Recap

Java is a compiled language. You can use javac and java to compile and run your code. Our first programs reveal several important syntax features of Java:

• All code lives inside a class.
• The code that is executed is inside a function, a.k.a. method, called main.
• Curly braces are used to denote the beginning and end of a section of code, e.g. a class or method declaration.
• Statements end with semi-colons.
• Variables have declared types, also called their “static type”.
• Variables must be declared before use.
• Functions must have a return type. If a function does not return anything, we use void,
• The compiler ensures type consistency. If types are inconsistent, the program will not compile.

Java is also statically-typed. Static typing gives us a number of important advantages over languages without static typing:

• Types are checked before the program is even run, allowing developers to catch type errors with ease.
• If you write a program and distribute the compiled version, it is (mostly) guaranteed to be free of any type errors. This makes your code more reliable.
• Every variable, parameter, and function has a declared type, making it easier for a programmer to understand and reason about code.

There are downside of static typing, to be discussed later.

We also discussed briefly how to comment code and coding style. Coding style is very important in this course and in the real world. Code should be appropriately commented as described in the textbook and lectures. We haven’t learned what good style is yet, nor when to use comments.

Git is a version control system that tracks the history of a set of files in the form of commits. Commit often and use informative commit messages so it’s easy for the future-you to find what the change you’re looking for. Pull from the skeleton remote repository to get or update starter code for assignments and use Gradescope to submit labs and projects.

If you haven’t had a chance to work on the optional Java introduction yet, now’s a good time! This will help the transition to programming in Java smoother over the next couple of labs.

Deliverables

There are two required file:

LeapYear.java
You should have completed the isLeapYear method in this file.
magic_word.txt
You should have received the correct magic word from completing the git checkoff.

Congratulations on finishing your first CS 61BL lab!