## FAQ#

This assignment has an FAQ page.

## Before You Begin #

Pull the code for Lab 7 and import it into IntelliJ.

## Learning Goals #

First, we’ll look at some classes we’ve written so far, and identify patterns in what we can do with them. We will connect this idea to abstract data types, then tie them to a feature of Java’s inheritance system, called interfaces. This feature allows us to make a more complicated system of class interrelations than we have seen previously, and its correct utilization of is key to being able to write generalizable and neat code.

Once introduced, we will use this concept to explain the workings of the Java Collections Framework, which contains many of the data structures you’ve encountered before. Finally, we’ll write our own implemetations for a simplified abstract data type.

## Motivation #

Read chapter 4.1 and the “ADTs” and “Java Libraries” sections of chapter 4.4 of the online textbook. The textbook provides motivation for learning interfaces. We will first cover abstract data types (ADTs) as a motivation for learning interfaces, discuss various ADTs and their implementations in Java, then jump into implementing a few of our own.

## Abstract Data Types #

In the first weeks of CS 61BL, we’ve implemented two classes that have (or could reasonably have) many of the same methods: SLList and DLList:

public void add(int index, Item item);
public Item get(int index);
public Item getFirst();
public Item getLast();
public void remove(Item item);
public Item removeFirst();
public Item removeLast();
public int size();


It seems like this list of methods could exist and have meaning separate from any actual implementation. We call a collection of methods – a description of what we can do with a collection of data – an abstract data type.

SLList and DLList are particular kinds of lists, an abstract data type that has the methods listed above. Let’s say that we use someone’s code that defines another kind of list called MysteryList. Even though we might not know how its implementation works, we know that it can do at least everything a List can - because it’s a List!

## Interfaces #

In Java, we can specify ADTs with interfaces, “classes” that define a specific set of behavior. Specifically, they provide the method signatures for all the required methods. Generally, interfaces do not have method implementations, because they only describe what they can do, not how they do it. This also means that interfaces cannot be instantiated.

If we can’t directly instantiate them, then how do we use them? Let’s think back to what we said earlier:

ADTs are a description of what we can do with a collection of data, and we can specify ADTs with interfaces in Java.

When we write code, we often don’t care about the implementation details of the data types we’re using, and only care about what we can do with them. Therefore, we should write code to work with the ADT (interface)!

This is the idea of abstraction barriers: we don’t need to know how the methods we use have been implemented, only that they exist and should function according to their specification.

### Implementing Interfaces #

When a class implements an interface, it is giving a guarantee that it can perform a certain functionality defined by its interface. You’ll find that the idea of an interface is actually very central to software engineering in general. When you’re asked to implement a set of methods to perform some specific task, that’s implementing an interface. Often when working on a group project, a good approach is to split the work into parts that will be integrated together at the end. In order to allow work to be done in parallel, it is important to establish what each part will accomplish and how it will interact with other parts so that they can be merged together without issue. Establishing what each of these parts will do and how they interact with other parts is essentially treating each part as an interface. Using interfaces is all about not knowing the actual implementation, but instead utilizing the input-to-output, defined behavior given by the interface; implementing an interface to specification like you are asked for assignments and projects is about making sure the program you write under some interface gives the correct output for all inputs.

### Interfaces in Java #

We’ll use the following SimpleList interface, which has a few of the methods for the list ADT discussed above.

public interface SimpleList {

/** Returns the integer stored at position i. */
int get(int i);

/** Adds k into the list at position i. */

/** Removes the item at position i. */
void remove(int i);

/** Returns the number of elements in this list. */
int size();
}


An interface contains methods without bodies, or just method signatures. To make a class implement this interface, we use the implements keyword:

public class SLList implements MySimpleList {
@Override
int get(int i) {
// ...
}
// ...
}


Some things to know about interfaces and related topics:

Implementations must implement all method signatures from the interface
We can’t partially implement an interface, because the implementation then does not meet all the requirements we have said it does.
@Override
This method annotation is not required when implementing a method from an interface, but enforces that the method does override an interface method. This helps prevent typos, like accidentally defining void ad(int i, int k), or void add(int i), when we wanted to implement the interface method above.
Interface methods are public by default.
Interfaces are a description of behavior (what we can do), and it doesn’t make sense to describe things that we can’t do outside the class.
Interfaces cannot have fields.
Fields imply that the interface is storing some data, which implies that we are relying on its implementation – which isn’t allowed. The exception to this is that interfaces can have static constants (static final).
Classes can implement more than one interface.
Classes can behave like multiple things at once. To have a class implement more than one interface, we use commas:
public class SLList implements SimpleList, ComplexList {
// ...
}


We’ve talked about the list ADT. What other ADTs are commonly used, and in what kinds of situations? What are their implementations in Java?

### Lists #

Let’s define the list ADT in a bit more detail:

A list is an ordered collection, or sequence, so the elements in a list have positions. An element can appear as many times as desired, as duplicates are allowed. Thus, they must support the following operations:

• adding an element to the list at a specific index
• removeing an element from the list at a specific index
• geting an element at a position in the list
• setting the element at a position in the list
• Checking if the list contains a given item
• Getting the size of a list

Java’s List interface contains many more methods, but these are the minimum methods that make Java’s Lists behave like our mental model of a list.

The List implementations that you will use most often is ArrayList. Another common implementation is LinkedList, which is similar to our DLList.

### Sets #

When might we want something other than a list? Consider (but don’t implement) the following problem:

Write a program that counts the number of unique words in a large text file (such as the entire text of “War and Peace”). The program should output the number of unique words in the text file.

We could use a list, but the list ADT allows duplicate elements. We’d like to use ADT that handles duplicate elements for us, so we can simplify the code that we write. This is what the set ADT is for!

A set is a collection of unique items that is not necessarily ordered. Sets must support following operations at a minimum:

• adding an element to the set
• removeing an element from the set
• Checking if the set contains a given item
• Getting the size of a set

There are two implementations of the Set interface in Java that you will use often:

This is a concrete example of why interfaces are useful – when we’re writing a method, we may not care about whether it’s a TreeSet or a HashSet. However, the code calling that method might need the ordering of the TreeSet or the speed of the HashSet – we don’t know how our code is going to be used! We can allow our code to be used by both by writing our method for the Set interface, instead of for TreeSet or for HashSet.

### Maps #

Let’s modify the above problem slightly:

Write a program that counts the number of unique words in a large text file (such as the entire text of “War and Peace”, which is 1225 pages!). The program should also be able to take a word as input, and output how many times that word appeared in the book.

Here, we really want something that relates words to counts. This is where we can use the map ADT!

A map is a collection of key-to-value mappings, like a dictionary from Python. A map is not necessarily ordered. Maps must support at least the following operations:

• Change (put) the value that a particular key maps to.
• get the value that a particular key maps to.
• remove the value for a given key
• Checking if the map contains a given key

Similar to Set, There are two implementations of the Map interface in Java that you will use often:

• To use a Java Map, you must specify two types: the key type, and the value type. This is distinct from Lists and Sets, which only need to specify one type.

• Maps are a mapping from keys to values, but not values to keys. They store a relationship in one direction. For example: consider a map which had keys as emails, and the values as peoples’ names. Given an email, I can find out who has that email. However, given a person, I can’t easily find out their email using that map. I would need a different map going in the opposite direction (keys as peoples’ names mapping to values as emails).

## Collections #

Looking at the above ADTs, it seems like they also share some behaviors. We can add elements, remove elements, check if the ADT contains a certain element, and get the size. This looks like somewhere we can define a separate ADT!

The collection ADT represents a collection of data. Most of the data structures we will study the rest of this class are used to implement collections. At the most general level, pretty much anything you use to store multiple items at once is going to fulfill the requirements to be a collection. Throughout this course, we will continue to see implementations of these collections.

So, what does it mean (in Java) for a List, an ADT, to be a Collection, another ADT? We say that interfaces can extend other interfaces:

public interface List<Item> extends Collection<Item> {
...
}


This means that the List interface “inherits” all the methods in the Collection interface… or that a List has all the behaviors that a Collection has!

As seen above, the Java interface for collections is, unsurprisingly, Collection. Typically, we’ll implement the behaviors for a particular kind of collection, rather than the Collection interface itself.

### Maps and Collections #

Unlike set and list, Map is not a direct extension of the Java Collection interface. This is because Collection specifies collections of a single element type, but Map operates on key-value pairs. Instead, from Java’s Map documentation, “The Map interface provides three collection views, which allow a map’s contents to be viewed as a set of keys, collection of values, or set of key-value mappings.”

• keySet(), which returns a Set of all the keys. The keys are unique, so a set is an appropriate choice here.
• values(), which returns a Collection of all the values. The values are not necessarily unique, which is why we prefer a more general Collection rather than a Set.
• entrySet(), which returns a Set of key-value pairs with a wrapper type called Entry. The entry class’s job is just to hold the key and the value together in a single class, so you can imagine that it might look something like this.

  public class Entry<Key, Value> {
private Key key;
private Value value;
public Key getKey();
public Value getValue();
// ...
}


These methods are vital when iterating over anything which implements the Map interface.

## Exercise: Implementing Sets #

We will implement two kinds of sets, with different underyling implementations.

The file SimpleCollection.java contains a simplified version of the Collection interface which only accepts integers as members. The files SimpleSet.java contains a simplified version of the Set interfaces. Read both files so you can understand how interfaces and interface extension are being used here, as well as to understand what each of the interfaces requires.

### ListSet#

The file ListSet.java is an incomplete implementation of the SimpleSet interface. It maintains uniqueness of a set of elements by storing elements in an ArrayList<Integer>.

Implement the methods of the ListSet.java class, and use the ListSetTest.java file to test your methods. We only provide a basic test, so feel free to add more comprehensive tests to this file.

### BooleanSet#

The file BooleanSet.java is an incomplete implementation of the SimpleSet interface. It maintains uniqueness of elements in the set by storing a boolean array contains for a range [0, maxElement]. This version of the SimpleSet interface only deals with positive integers and uses a boolean array to keep track of what values are currently in the Set. Check the example below:

Implement the methods of the BooleanSet.java class, and use the BooleanSetTest.java file to test your methods. We only provide a basic test, so feel free to add more comprehensive tests to this file.

What are the tradeoffs between these two implementations? Neither one is strictly “better” than the other in all situations, but when might we want to use one of them? Discuss with your partner.

## Aside: Generics and Autoboxing #

As you should remember from Lab 6, generics allow us to define data structures without relying on the specific type of objects it holds. This allows us to even further generalize our code, creating reusable data structures.

Autoboxing is an automatic conversion that Java performs when presented a wrapper class. A wrapper class is a class that has been “wrapped” around a primitive data type so that the programmer can rely on object oriented interactions. You may have seen some examples already, such as Integer.java and Double.java. Automatic conversion is performed between wrapper classes and the primitives they represent.

Read Chapter 5.1 and 5.3 which we skipped earlier, covering generics and autoboxing in Java. These two topics will be helpful for implementing data structures moving forward, though they aren’t emphasized in this lab.

## Recap #

We introduced a few key topics in this lab:

Abstract Data Types
Abstract data types are defined to be some sort of data that is defined by a set of operations rather than the implementation of these operations.
Interfaces
In Java, we can implement ADTs using interfaces. When a class implements an interface, the class must implement all the methods required by the interface.
List, Set, Map, and Collection
Java has interfaces for several ADTs, and several implementations for each of these ADTs. If we want to write code using algorithms that work on ADTs, we can write code against these Java collection types.

## Deliverables #

As a reminder, this lab has an FAQ.

For full credit, submit:

• Implement and test each method in ListSet.java.
• Implement and test each method in BooleanSet.java.

For the remainder of this lab, you can work on Project 1.